|Core Biology: Plant SciencesRunning Time: 0:29:00|
Plant sciences are the study of plant life and are also known as botany.
- 1.) 323 b.c. - Theophratus Founds Botany
- 00:04:28Theophrastus, the father of plant classification, was a leader of early Greek science and a great figure in Greek history.
- 2.) 1682 - Plant Physiology
- 00:05:52Plant classification, or plant types, classifies plants according to plant physiology, And includes those who reproduce by spores and those who reproduce by seeds such as gymnosperms and angiospoerms.
- 3.) 1694 - How Plants Reproduce
- 00:04:11Plant reproduction involves the male organ, a stamen, and the female organ, a pistil with an opening called the stigma, where pollen is deposited, a form of sexual reproduction first demonstrated by Rudolph Camerarius.
- 4.) 1838 - The Cellular Basis of Plant Life
- 00:02:13Cells were first discovered by Robert Hooke and later, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, who invented the microscope which could see a single plant cell.
- 5.) 1866 - Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
- 00:05:09Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance for plant genetics.
- 6.) 1886 - Nitrogen-Fixing of the Pea Family Is Explained
- 00:01:50Plant nitrogen-fixing uses the bacteria identified as rhizobium and improves yields in agriculture.
- 7.) 1946 - Photosynthesis
- 00:03:45How Photosynthesis works was described by the Calvin/Benson cycle, named for its discoverer Melvin Calvin, and has become a central tenet in understanding global warming.
|Core Biology: Animal SciencesRunning Time: 0:29:00|
Animal sciences are also known as zoology and study animals.
- 1.) 350 b.c. - Aristotle Founds Zoology
- 00:02:17Greek Science, was founded by Aristotle the first scientist in Greek history.
- 2.) 1735 - Carlos Linnaeus Begins the Modern Description of Life
- 00:05:44Animal classification was set down by Carlos Linnaeus And includes the phyla porifera, cnidaria, mollusks, arthropods, echinodermata and chordata.
- 3.) 1796 - Comparative Anatomy
- 00:02:27Comparative anatomy was developed by George Cuvier and uses the concepts of homologous structures and convergent evolution to compare the anatomy of animals.
- 4.) 1826 - All Animal Life Begins with an Egg
- 00:04:18Animal life cycles start from embryos, and some of these life cycles are complex, needing a larva to develop into an adult, while others are simple as the embryo develops directly into a juvenile form of the adult.
- 5.) 1859 - The Theory of Evolution
- 00:04:17The theory of Evolution was described by Charles Darwin in his book On the Origin of Species, and later was refined with the idea of punctuated equilibrium.
- 6.) 1973 - The Science of Animal Behavior
- 00:04:30The study of Animal behavior and behavior modification has been carried out by leading scientists such as Ivan Pavlov, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen.
- 7.) 1998 - Principles of Animal Communication
- 00:03:36The study of animal communication and how animal senses work was begun by Karl von Frisch.
|Core Biology: Environmental SciencesRunning Time: 0:29:00|
Ecology and the environment are part of conservation and environmental studies.
- 1.) 1920 - Biomes
- 00:04:17The world's biomes are tundra, coniferous forest, deciduous forests, grasslands, deserts, chaparral and tropical.
- 2.) 1928 - The Theory of Plant Succession
- 00:03:30Plant succession was first described by Frederic Clements to show how a plant community evolved.
- 3.) 1949 - Ecology
- 00:02:20The idea that ecology was important and needed an environmental ethic and a land ethic in order to sustains the ecosystem was first developed by Aldo Leopold.
- 4.) 1953 -Ecosystems
- 00:02:56The study of ecosystems was first written about by Eugene P. Odum.
- 5.) 1957 - Ecology's Concept of Niche
- 00:04:54Ecological niche, or niche, and habitat are two concepts introduced in the study of population ecology in order to define better ecosystem species and species population.
- 6.) 1969 - The Five Kingdoms of Life
- 00:05:01The Kingdoms of Life are based upon prokaryote cells and are the Kingdom of Monera, and eukaryote cells, which include fungi, protista, the animal kingdom and plant kingdom.
- 7.) 1979 - Gaia Hypothesis
- 00:01:43The Gaia Hypothesis was develop by James Lovelock.
- 8.) 1986 - Biodiversity
- 00:02:59The term Biodiversity was coined by E.O. Wilson to show the diversity in the world's ecosystems.
|Core Biology: Microbiology and GeneticsRunning Time: 0:29:00|
Cytology, the structure of cells, is important to understanding microbiology and genetics.
- 1.) 1673 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek Describes Microscopic Life
- 00:03:18The study of cells was first started by Anton van Leeuwenhoek, who used a microscope to look at a single cell, and has grown to understand the roles of eukaryote cells, bacteria and prokaryote cells.
- 2.) 1878 - Germ Theory of Disease
- 00:06:21Bacteria, discovered by Louis Pasteur who showed they could cause infection, are known as a prokaryote cell and cause illness just like viruses can.
- 3.) 1884 - The Structure of Cells
- 00:03:42Biologists have long studied the cell structure, which is not the same for all cells and includes the cytoplasm, cell walls, cell nucleus, mitochondria, and unique to plants, chloroplasts.
- 4.) 1884 - Mitosis and Cell Division
- 00:04:11Mitosis describes the phases that occur in cell division for eukaryote cells to make sure that each daughter cell gets a complete set of chromosomes, hence genes; and that each daughter cell also receives some of all the other organelles, for example, mitochondria and ribosomes; while in bacteria cell division is simpler.
- 5.) 1905 - Meiosis
- 00:03:03The process of meiosis in biological reproduction shows how sex cells, carrying half the chromosomes of the mother cell cell, come about.
- 6.) 1911 - Genes
- 00:05:18Genes were discovered by American Thomas Hunt Morgan, who proved that they were places, or loci, along the chromosomes' DNA DNA, a breakthrough that in later half of the 20th century led to breakthroughs in genetic engineering.
- 7.) 1967 - The Symbiotic Cell
- 00:01:40The theory that a symbiotic cell gave rise to the eukaryote cell was first proposed by biologist Lynn Margulis.