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The History of Western Art
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The History of Western Art: Volume 1: Light in the Darkness

This program presents Gothic Art and western art, artists, and painters of the Late Medieval Period to the Renaissance, including Giotto, Van Eyck, Brunoleschi, Massachio, Donatello, Rogier van der Weyden, and Botticelli.
00:00:59THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME PARIS
00:01:03COMPLETED IN THE YEAR 1250 AFTER A NEAR CENTURY OF
00:01:05CONSTRUCTION THIS MAGNIFICENT GOTHIC BUILDING IS A STRIKING
00:01:08REMINDER OF THE STRENGTH OF THE CHURCH IN EUROPE
00:01:11AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN A TIME WHEN THE MAJORITY
00:01:15OF EUROPEANS ENDURED AN EXISTENCE OF FEUDAL POVERTY
00:01:18THE CHURCH WAS BY FAR THE WEALTHIEST MOST POWERFUL
00:01:20INSTITUTION ON THE CONTINENT AND ONE CAN IMAGINE THE AWE AN
00:01:25ORDINARY PERSON WOULD HAVE FELT UPON ENCOUNTERING A STRUCTURE
00:01:28SUCH AS THIS AND THE CHURCHS DOMINANCE
00:01:31OF SOCIETY ALSO EXPRESSED ITSELF IN THE WORLD OF ART NOT ONLY
00:01:35IN ARCHITECTURE BUT IN ALL THE VISUAL ARTS
00:01:39THE ANONYMOUS PAINTERS AND SCULPTORS OF THOSE DAYS WERE
00:01:41CONCERNED ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY WITH RELIGIOUS THEMES
00:01:44THEIR AIM WAS SIMPLY TO USE TIMEHONORED TECHNIQUES
00:01:47TO PRODUCE IMAGES THAT WOULD COMMUNICATE A SPIRITUAL MESSAGE
00:01:51THE REPRESENTATION OF REALITY IN THE ORDINARY TEMPORAL WORLD
00:01:54WAS NOT THEIR INTENTION BUT ART AND ARTISTS WERE ABOUT
00:01:59TO CHANGE FOREVER AND THE LATE MEDIEVAL WORLD
00:02:02WOULD SEE THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW IDEAS AND TECHNIQUES THAT WOULD
00:02:05LEAD ON TO THE GLORY OF THE 16thCENTURY HIGH RENAISSANCE
00:02:09AND ART AS WE KNOW IT TODAY AS THE 13th CENTURY DREW TO
00:02:14A CLOSE THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FABRIC OF EUROPE WAS SLOWLY
00:02:17BEGINNING TO CHANGE ALTHOUGH MOST PEOPLE STILL LIVED
00:02:21AS PEASANTS ON THE LAND TIED TO A FEUDAL LORD THE LATE MIDDLE
00:02:24AGES SAW THE TENTATIVE BEGINNINGS OF A NEW MIDDLE CLASS
00:02:27ACROSS EUROPE GRADUALLY SECULAR THINKING
00:02:30EMPHASIZING THE IMPORTANCE OF TRADE COMMERCE AND AN
00:02:34ECONOMY BASED ON MONEY BEGAN TO BE ESTABLISHED
00:02:37IN ENGLAND AND NORTHWEST EUROPE WOOL AND TEXTILES WERE A
00:02:41SUBSTANTIAL SOURCE OF NEW WEALTH WHILE IN ITALY WITH ITS
00:02:44HISTORIC LINKS TO THE EAST MERCHANTS TRADESMEN
00:02:47AND BANKERS BEGAN TO PLY INCREASINGLY PROFITABLE TRADE
00:02:49IN URBAN CENTERS SUCH AS PADUA SIENA AND FLORENCE
00:02:54IT WAS AGAINST THIS NEW SECULAR BACKGROUND THAT THE GREAT
00:02:57ARTISTS OF THE LATE MEDIEVAL WORLD WOULD ACHIEVE THEIR
00:02:59GREATEST RESULTS MOST ESPECIALLY IN THE TUSCAN
00:03:02REPUBLIC OF FLORENCE 150 MILES NORTH OF ROME
00:03:06THE FIRST OF THE GREAT ARTISTS TO COME FROM HERE WAS
00:03:08GIOTTO di BONDONE BORN NEAR FLORENCE AROUND 1267
00:03:13LITTLE IS KNOWN OF GIOTTOS EARLY LIFE LIKE SO MANY ARTISTS
00:03:16OF HIS TIME BUT BETWEEN 1302 AND 1305
00:03:20WE KNOW HE WAS WORKING IN THE NORTHERN ITALIAN TOWN OF PADUA
00:03:24PAINTING THE WALLS OF THE CAPILLA del ARENA USING A
00:03:27TECHNIQUE VIRTUALLY UNKNOWN SINCE ANCIENT TIMES
00:03:30ALONG WITH HIS CONTEMPORARY CIMABUE GIOTTO REDISCOVERED
00:03:33THE FRESCO THE METHOD OF PAINTING WITH WATERCOLORS
00:03:37ON PLASTER WHILE THE PLASTER IS STILL WET
00:03:41gtgt FRESCO PAINTING IS PERHAPS ONE OF THE MOST PERMANENT
00:03:44WALLPAINTING TECHNIQUES DEVISED IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
00:03:47BUT REALLY SPECIALIZED AND DEVELOPED IN ITALY
00:03:49IT RELIES ON THE BONDING OF PAINT WITH WET PLASTER
00:03:56AND THIS IS TRUE FRESCO AS DISTINCT FROM JUST
00:03:59WALL PAINTING WHERE PIGMENT WAS APPLIED TO THE SURFACE
00:04:01OF DRY PLASTER gtgt THE PAINT OF COURSE WOULD
00:04:05BE APPLIED BY USING WATER AND PIGMENT MIXED TOGETHER
00:04:09THIS WOULD GO INTO THE WET PLASTER AND FUSE WITH IT
00:04:13THIS GIVES IT THE TERMINOLOGY KNOWN AS BUONO FRESCO
00:04:18gtgt MORE REMARKABLE THAN GIOTTOS REDISCOVERY
00:04:21OF THE FRESCO TECHNIQUE HOWEVER WERE THE IMAGES
00:04:24HE CREATED USING IT BUT IT WASNT THE SUBJECT MATTER
00:04:28THAT MADE WORKS SUCH AS THE MOURNING OF CHRIST
00:04:31REVOLUTIONARY VISUAL DEPICTIONS OF EVENTS
00:04:34SURROUNDING THE LIFE OF CHRIST WERE COMMONPLACE
00:04:36BUT THE ILLUSTRATIONS OF BIBLICAL EVENTS THAT WERE
00:04:39CREATED MAINLY FROM MANUSCRIPTS WERE SIMPLY A MEANS OF
00:04:42COMMUNICATING SACRED THEMES TO A MAINLY ILLITERATE WORLD
00:04:46THIS 12thCENTURY GERMAN MANUSCRIPT ILLUSTRATION OF THE
00:04:49ANNUNCIATION MAKES NO ATTEMPT TO REPRESENT THE VIRGIN OR THE
00:04:53ANGEL AS PHYSICALLY REAL FIGURES EXISTING IN REAL SPACE
00:04:58THE ARTIST WOULD SIMPLY NOT HAVE BEEN CONCERNED WITH THIS
00:05:01WHAT WAS REMARKABLE ABOUT GIOTTOS EQUALLY RELIGIOUS WORK
00:05:04WAS THAT IT HAD DEPTH gtgt THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST
00:05:14REMARKABLE PAINTINGS IN THE ARENA CHAPEL AT PADUA BECAUSE
00:05:18THE SPECTATOR IS DRAWN INTO THE SCENE WHERE WE LOOK OVER THE
00:05:24BODIES OF THE MOURNING FIGURES OUR EYES ARE FOCUSED
00:05:28ONTO THE HEAD OF CHRIST WHAT HE PERHAPS SIGNIFICANTLY
00:05:32DOES IS TO CREATE A REAL SPACE ITS ALMOST LIKE A STAGE SET
00:05:36SO THE FIGURES DISPLACE AIR THEY ACTUALLY INHABIT
00:05:40THE GROUND gtgt GIOTTOS FRESCOES
00:05:43IN PADUA AND LATER WORKS SUCH AS HIS FRESCO SERIES
00:05:45FOR THE CHURCH OF SANTA CROCE IN FLORENCE ARE NOW CONSIDERED
00:05:49TO FORM THE STARTING POINT OF MODERN WESTERN ART
00:05:53GIOTTOS WORK ALSO MADE HIM FAMOUS
00:05:56THE GREAT WRITER DANTE DESCRIBED HIM AS THE GREATEST ARTIST
00:05:59OF HIS DAY GIOTTOS FAME SPREAD THROUGHOUT
00:06:03ITALY AND SO DID HIS NEW DISCOVERIES
00:06:07IN THE TUSCAN HILLTOP TOWN OF SIENA A NEAR NEIGHBOR
00:06:10BUT GREAT RIVAL OF FLORENCE THE INFLUENCE OF GIOTTO
00:06:14MADE ITSELF FELT THIS CAN BE SEEN IN
00:06:18THE ANNUNCIATION AN ALTARPIECE FOR SIENA CATHEDRAL PAINTED
00:06:22BY SIMONE MARTINI IN 1333 WITH THE SIDE PANELS PAINTED
00:06:27BY HIS BROTHERINLAW LIPPO MEMMI
00:06:31NOW ON DISPLAY IN THE UFFIZI GALLERY FLORENCE WE ARE ONCE
00:06:35AGAIN PRESENTED WITH THE BIBLICAL STORY OF THE VISITATION
00:06:39BY THE ARCHANGEL GABRIEL TO THE VIRGIN MARY
00:06:43BUT MARTINIS INTERPRETATION IS QUITE LITERALLY CENTURIES AHEAD
00:06:48OF THE ANONYMOUS GERMAN IMAGES OF TWO CENTURIES BEFORE
00:06:53AS IN GIOTTOS WORK WE SEE A NEW SPATIAL APPROACH
00:06:57TO REPRESENTATION EXPRESSING ITSELF
00:07:05gtgt WE SEE IN THE VERY MOVING ANNUNCIATION SIMONE MARTINI
00:07:09STILL UTILIZES THE GOLD BACKGROUND
00:07:12OF THE INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC IT IS VERY MUCH LIKE
00:07:16A LARGE PIECE OF JEWELRY BUT NEVERTHELESS A PAINTING
00:07:19OF TREMENDOUS KIND OF IMPACT THE VIRGIN MARY SHRINKS AWAY
00:07:24FROM THE ANGEL GABRIEL A SINUOUS KIND OF LINE
00:07:30ITS MORE TWODIMENSIONAL BUT NEVERTHELESS THERE ARE
00:07:33INNOVATIONS IN THE PAINTING BUT ESSENTIALLY THE GOLD
00:07:37BACKGROUND PRODUCES A MORE TWODIMENSIONAL EFFECT THAN
00:07:41THE INNOVATIONS FOR EXAMPLE IN MASACCIO OR EVEN THE EARLIER
00:07:44FOR EXAMPLETHE PAINTINGS IN GIOTTO
00:07:46gtgt HIS WORK MARKS THE START OF THE INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC STYLE
00:07:51THIS SENSE OF NATURALISM OBSERVED PHENOMENA
00:07:54THIS CAN CLEARLY BE SEEN IN THE LILIES IN THE BACKGROUND
00:07:57WHICH ARE PART OF THE STILL LIFE CONNECTED TO THE ANNUNCIATION
00:08:01gtgt ALTHOUGH PAINTINGS SUCH AS THE ANNUNCIATION
00:08:06TOGETHER WITH GIOTTOS EARLIER WORK REPRESENTED A GENUINE STEP
00:08:10FORWARD IN THE ARTISTIC REPRESENTATION OF DEPTH
00:08:13AND SPACE SUCH 14thCENTURY IMAGES STILL STRIKE US
00:08:18AS UNSOPHISTICATED IN COMPARISON TO THE GREAT MASTERPIECES
00:08:21OF LATER TIMES THE PROBLEM WAS THAT THE ABILITY
00:08:26TO AUTHENTICALLY REPRODUCE THREEDIMENSIONAL SCENES
00:08:30ON A TWODIMENSIONAL SURFACE HAD NOT YET BEEN DISCOVERED
00:08:36IT WOULD BE THE 15th CENTURY BEFORE IT WAS
00:08:40IN THE MID1300s HOWEVER THE ITALIAN TOWNS AND CITIES COULD
00:08:44BE EXCUSED FOR NOT CONCERNING THEMSELVES WITH ART TECHNIQUE
00:08:48ALONG WITH THE REST OF THE CONTINENT THEY ENDURED
00:08:51THE HORRORS OF THE BLACK DEATH IT WOULD BE A GENERATION AFTER
00:08:56THE TERRIBLE PLAGUE BEFORE THE MEN WOULD BE BORN TO TAKE
00:08:59VISUAL ART INTO A GRAND NEW AGE AND THESE MEN WOULD ALL HAIL
00:09:05LIKE GIOTTO BEFORE THEM FROM THE REMARKABLE CITY OF FLORENCE
00:09:13THE 14th CENTURY IN FLORENCE SAW THE GRADUAL EMERGENCE
00:09:17OF A NEW BUILDING IN THE HEART OF THE CITY THE CATHEDRAL
00:09:21OF SANTA MARIA DEL FIORE ALTHOUGH CONSTRUCTION BEGAN
00:09:25IN GIOTTOS TIME IN 1296 BY 1420 ONLY THE BODY OF THE
00:09:30BUILDING HAD BEEN CONSTRUCTED THE FLORENTINE AUTHORITIES WERE
00:09:34NOW FACED WITH A PROBLEM THEY WERE KEEN FOR THE OCTAGONAL
00:09:37CATHEDRAL TO BE TOPPED WITH A GREAT DOME BUT NO ARCHITECT OF
00:09:42THE AGE POSSESSED THE TECHNICAL SKILLS TO CARRY OUT THE TASK
00:09:45UNTIL FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI TRAINED AS A GOLDSMITH
00:09:51HE BECAME A MASTER ARCHITECT IN ADDITION TO MASTERING THE
00:09:56GOTHIC ARCHITECTURAL TECHNIQUES OF HIS AGE HE ALSO STUDIED
00:10:00PASSIONATELY THE STRUCTURES AND TECHNIQUES OF THE ANCIENT ROMANS
00:10:04AND TRAVELED WIDELY ACROSS ITALY TO ASSIST HIS LEARNING
00:10:09BY 1420 THIS 43YEAROLD FLORENTINE WAS ABLE TO ACCEPT
00:10:14THE COMMISSION FOR THE CATHEDRAL DOME
00:10:18OVER THE NEXT 16 YEARS HE CREATED A MASTERPIECE
00:10:27gtgt BRUNELLESCHI SUCCEEDED WHERE MOST OF THE FLORENTINES THOUGHT
00:10:30IT WOULD BE AN IMPOSSIBLE ACHIEVEMENT TO KIND OF ROOF
00:10:32THE DOME OF THE INCOMPLETE CATHEDRAL
00:10:35AND BRUNELLESCHIS SKILL CAME REALLY BOTH AS KIND OF AN ARTIST
00:10:40BUT AS AN ENGINEER HED STUDIED
00:10:43THE ROMAN TECHNIQUES HED BEEN AROUND
00:10:46THE RUINS OF ROME HE UNDERSTOOD HOW THE ROMANS
00:10:49HAD CONSTRUCTED THE GREAT DOME OF THE PANTHEON
00:10:52BUT HE ALSO REALIZED THAT A LARGE HEMISPHERE WOULD BE
00:10:57INAPPROPRIATE ON TOP OF THE OCTAGON OF SANTA MARIA FIORE
00:11:03THE CATHEDRAL AT FLORENCE AND THE WAY HE DID IT WAS
00:11:07IN FACT TO ALSO INCORPORATE SOME OF THE INNOVATIONS OF
00:11:10GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BY HAVING POINTED ARCHES GOING FROM EACH
00:11:15OF THE CORNERS OF THE OCTAGON HE THEN WAS ABLE TO DEVISE
00:11:20A STRUCTURE WHICH WENT UP IN KIND OF TWO LAYERS AN INNER
00:11:23DOME AND AN OUTER DOME AND WHAT IS INTRIGUING IS THAT
00:11:26HE DID THIS WITHOUT SCAFFOLDING FROM THE INSIDE
00:11:31gtgt AS WE HAVE SEEN 14thCENTURY ARTISTS SUCH AS
00:11:35GIOTTO AND MARTINI ATTEMPTED TO INTRODUCE DEPTH INTO THEIR
00:11:39PAINTINGS A SIGNIFICANT STEP TOWARDS THE NOTION OF PAINTING
00:11:43AS A REFLECTION OF REALITY RATHER THAN A SIMPLE MESSAGE
00:11:46OF SPIRITUALITY THE ARTISTS OF CLASSICAL TIMES
00:11:51HAD ALSO ATTEMPTED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF REPRESENTING
00:11:54THREEDIMENSIONAL SPACE ON A TWODIMENSIONAL SURFACE
00:11:58WITH LIMITED SUCCESS BUT THEY WERE UNABLE
00:12:02TO FORMULATE A CONSISTENT MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM
00:12:04TO ACHIEVE THIS IT WAS THE GENIUS OF
00:12:08BRUNELLESCHI THAT FINALLY SOLVED THE PROBLEM AND IN THE PROCESS
00:12:12CHANGED PAINTING FOREVER gtgt IN ABOUT 1414 POSSIBLY 1415
00:12:24BRUNELLESCHI INVENTS PERSPECTIVE
00:12:27HE TRAVELS TO ROME POSSIBLY WITH DONATELLO
00:12:30WHILE IN ROME WE KNOW HES WORKING AND LOOKING
00:12:34AT ANCIENT BUILDINGS THE ARTIFACTS OF ANCIENT ROME
00:12:38THROUGH HIS STUDY OF THESE HIS UNDERSTANDING WOULD BE INCREASED
00:12:44BY FINDING OUT ABOUT ONEPOINT PERSPECTIVE AS AN AID TO
00:12:48COMPREHENDING A BUILDINGS STRUCTURE
00:12:51gtgt THE INVENTION OF PERSPECTIVE IS REALLY ONE OF THE REMARKABLE
00:12:54ACHIEVEMENTS OF 15thCENTURY FLORENCE BECAUSE HERE WAS
00:12:58A DEVICESCIENTIFICWHEREBY ARTISTS COULD KIND OF PLOT
00:13:03FIGURES USING COORDINATES IN SPACE
00:13:07BRUNELLESCHI DEVISED A SYSTEM WHEREBY WHAT WAS HIS POINT
00:13:12ESTABLISHED WAS AT EYE LEVEL THEN ALL THE RECEDING PARALLEL
00:13:16LINES MEET AT A VANISHING POINT WHEN ARTISTS UNDERSTOOD THIS
00:13:21THEY COULD CONSTRUCT A PICTURE THEY COULD PLACE FIGURES IN
00:13:25AND THEY COULD APPEAR TO BE IN SPACE BECAUSE THE SCALE
00:13:28OF THE FIGURES WOULD BE REDUCED gtgt THE DISCOVERY
00:13:32OF THE LAWS OF PERSPECTIVE REPRESENTED A REVOLUTION
00:13:34IN VISUAL ART AND THE FIRST ARTIST TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE
00:13:38NEW KNOWLEDGE WAS MASACCHIO A FLORENTINE LIKE BRUNELLESCHI
00:13:44AND LIKEWISE ORIGINALLY TRAINED AS A GOLDSMITH MASACCHIO
00:13:48CREATED NO MORE THAN A HANDFUL OF WORKS IN HIS LIFETIME
00:13:52BUT WHAT HE DID PRODUCE WAS NOTHING SHORT OF REVOLUTIONARY
00:13:56BECAUSE MASACCIO WAS THE FIRST ARTIST TO INCORPORATE THE NEW
00:14:00IDEAS OF PERSPECTIVE PERHAPS HIS GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT
00:14:06IS THE HOLY TRINITY A FRESCO IN THE CHURCH
00:14:09OF SANTA MARIA NOVELLA gtgt MASACCIOS ACHIEVEMENT
00:14:15IN SANTA MARIO NOVELLA THE PAINTING OF THE TRINITY
00:14:20IS THAT REALLY HE INVOLVES THE SPECTATOR
00:14:23IN A CONVINCING ILLUSION THIS IS ACHIEVED BY HIM FULLY
00:14:27UNDERSTANDING BRUNELLESCHIS RULES OF PERSPECTIVE
00:14:31gtgt HE USES TWO POINTS ONE POINT PROJECTS BACK
00:14:35INTO THE SPACE PREDOMINANTLY THE ARCHITECTURE
00:14:39THE OTHER POINT PROJECTS UPWARDS AND IN THE MIDDLE
00:14:42YOU HAVE CHRIST ON THE CROSS WHOS BASICALLY AT EYE LEVEL
00:14:46SO THAT THE VIEWER IS PUSHED INTO THE PAINTINGS
00:14:51gtgt IT IS DIFFICULT TO OVERSTATE THE SIGNIFICANCE
00:14:53OF MASACCIOS WORK TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN PAINTING
00:14:58FRESCOES SUCH AS THE HOLY TRINITY AND
00:15:00THE TRIBUTE MONEY WITH ITS DRAMATIC POSITIONING OF CHRISTS
00:15:04HEAD RELATIVE TO THE PERSPECTIVAL LINES OF THE
00:15:07BUILDINGS CAUSED A SENSATION BECAUSE NOTHING LIKE THIS
00:15:11HAD EVER BEEN SEEN BEFORE TRAGICALLY MASACCIO WAS UNABLE
00:15:15TO ENJOY THE REWARDS FOR HIS ARTISTIC ACHIEVEMENTS
00:15:19HE DIED IN 1428 AT THE AGE OF 27
00:15:27THE SYSTEM OF PERSPECTIVE HE USED WOULD LIVE ON HOWEVER
00:15:31AND WOULD BE FORMALIZED IN 1436 BY LEON ALBERTI IN HIS BOOK
00:15:38ON PAINTING WHICH WOULD BECOME THE STANDARD TEXTBOOK ON
00:15:41PERSPECTIVE FOR GENERATIONS AN ARCHITECT PERHAPS BEST KNOWN
00:15:46FOR THE PALAZZO DUCALE IN FLORENCE ALBERTI WAS TRULY
00:15:51ONE OF THE LEADING LIGHTS IN THE FLORENCE OF THE FIRST
00:15:54HALF OF THE 15th CENTURY IT TRULY WAS A REMARKABLE AGE
00:15:59WITH GROUNDBREAKING DEVELOPMENTS IN ALL THE VISUAL ARTS
00:16:03IN ARCHITECTURE AND IN PAINTING AS WE HAVE SEEN BUT ALSO
00:16:07IN SCULPTURE WITH THE WORK OF ONE DONATO di NICOLO
00:16:13di BETTO BARDI BETTER KNOWN TO HISTORY AS DONATELLO
00:16:19THE THIRD IN THE GREAT FLORENTINE TRIUMVIRATE OF THE
00:16:21EARLY RENAISSANCE ALONGSIDE BRUNELLESCHI AND MASACCIO
00:16:24AND WIDELY CONSIDERED TO BE THE GREATEST ARTIST OF HIS CENTURY
00:16:28DONATELLO WAS LIKE SO MANY OF HIS CONTEMPORARIES TRAINED
00:16:31AS A GOLDSMITH BUT QUICKLY DISCOVERED HIS TRUE
00:16:34ARTISTIC CALLING IN KEEPING WITH THE PREVAILING
00:16:37ARTISTIC THINKING HE WAS FASCINATED BY THE WORKS
00:16:40OF CLASSICAL TIMES AS A SCULPTOR THIS WAS
00:16:42NOT SURPRISING THE WORKS OF THE GREEK SCULPTORS
00:16:45WERE AMONGST THE GREATEST ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CLASSICAL
00:16:48WORLD DISPLAYING AN UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN ANATOMY
00:16:51THAT DONATELLO SOUGHT TO REGAIN WITH HIS OWN STUDIES
00:16:55OF THE HUMAN FORM BUT LIKE HIS CONTEMPORARIES
00:16:59DONATELLO WAS NOT CONCERNED WITH SIMPLY COPYING
00:17:02THE WORKS OF THE ANCIENTS HE SOUGHT TO COMBINE THE SKILLS
00:17:05OF THE PAST WITH THE HUMANISTIC SPIRIT OF HIS AGE
00:17:08AND SUCCEEDED MAGNIFICENTLY ONE OF DONATELLOS EARLIER
00:17:13WORKS A MARBLE STATUE OF SAINT GEORGE NOW ON DISPLAY
00:17:15IN FLORENCES BARGELLO MUSEUM DEMONSTRATES HIS ABILITY
00:17:23gtgt THE REMARKABLE QUALITY OF SAINT GEORGE
00:17:26OR SAN MICHELE IS THAT IT COMBINES PORTRAIT QUALITIES
00:17:33OF ROMAN SCULPTURE BUT WITH A NEW NATURALISM
00:17:38ITS SO DIFFERENT FROM THE STIFF ROMANESQUE FIGURES
00:17:42THERE IS A POISE TO SAINT GEORGE
00:17:46HE LOOKS OUT HOLDS HIS SHIELD THERES A BALANCE
00:17:49THERES A CONFIDENCE AND THIS IS A FULLY
00:17:523DREALIZED FIGURE gtgt WHILE FLORENCE
00:17:59EXPERIENCED THE NEW IDEAS IN WORKS OF THE EARLY RENAISSANCE
00:18:02ACROSS THE ALPS IN NORTHWESTERN EUROPE ARTISTS WERE SLOWER
00:18:06TO CAST OFF THE TRADITIONS OF THE PAST
00:18:10THE PERIOD AROUND THE TURN OF THE 15th CENTURY WAS DOMINATED
00:18:13BY WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC STYLE
00:18:18AN INTENSELY DECORATIVE STYLE WITH A STRONG EMPHASIS ON LINE
00:18:23AS CAN BE SEEN IN THE NATIONAL GALLERYS WILTON DIPTYCH
00:18:27A LATE 14thCENTURY TEMPERA WORK THE NAME OF WHOSE CREATOR
00:18:31IS NOW LOST ALTHOUGH THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PRODUCTION
00:18:35OF THE WORK IS KNOWN FOR HE IS DEPICTED IN IT
00:18:40IT IS THAT TRAGIC MONARCH RICHARD II OF ENGLAND WHO IS
00:18:45KNEELING BEFORE MARY AND JESUS THE WILTON DIPTYCH IS
00:18:50THEREFORE WHAT IS KNOWN AS A DONOR PORTRAIT
00:18:55DONOR PORTRAITS IN WHICH A PATRONS IMAGE WOULD BE
00:18:58INCORPORATED INTO A PAINTING OF A BIBLICAL OR MYTHOLOGICAL
00:19:02SCENE WERE EXTREMELY POPULAR IN LATE MEDIEVAL TIMES
00:19:07AND WOULD CONTINUE TO BE COMMISSIONED ACROSS EUROPE
00:19:10WELL INTO THE RENAISSANCE gtgt THE DONOR PORTRAIT WAS A WAY
00:19:15OF BUYING YOURSELF OUT OF HELL LATER ON OF COURSE IT BECOMES
00:19:19MUCH MORE IMPORTANT TO BE SEEN SO THIS IS SORT OF SAYING
00:19:25TO THE SOCIETY HERE I AM I HAVE ARRIVED
00:19:28I AM WEALTHY IM RICH I DOMINATE
00:19:32gtgt THE INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC STYLE OF PAINTING SUCH
00:19:35AS THE WILTON DIPTYCH WAS NOT AN ARTISTIC SCHOOL IN THE MODERN
00:19:40SENSE OF THE PHRASE RATHER A SIMILARITY OF STYLE THAT
00:19:44ACHIEVED POPULARITY ACROSS EUROPE ESPECIALLY AMONGST
00:19:48THE ARTISTS OF THE NETHERLANDS IT WAS ARTISTS FROM THIS PART
00:19:52OF EUROPE WHO WOULD PRODUCE A LARGE QUANTITY OF THE
00:19:54IMPORTANT ARTWORKS PRODUCED AWAY FROM ITALY IN THE LATE
00:19:57MEDIEVAL PERIOD AND ALTHOUGH THE IDEAS OF THE
00:20:02ITALIAN MASTERS BEGAN TO SPREAD THROUGHOUT EUROPE THE ART OF
00:20:05THE NETHERLANDS RETAINED ITS OWN INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY WITH ITS
00:20:10GREATEST MASTER UNDOUBTEDLY JAN VAN EYCK
00:20:16LIKE MANY ARTISTS OF HIS AGE LITTLE IS KNOWN OF THE EARLY
00:20:20LIFE OF VAN EYCK AND EVEN LESS OF HIS BROTHER HUBERT WHO IS
00:20:25BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN INVOLVED WITH THE CREATION OF SOME OF HIS
00:20:28EARLY WORK BY 1425 HOWEVER WE KNOW THAT
00:20:33HE WAS ESTABLISHED IN LILLE AS COURT PAINTER TO PHILIP
00:20:37THE GOOD DUKE OF BURGUNDY A RELATIONSHIP THAT WOULD MAKE
00:20:40JAN VAN EYCK A WEALTHY MAN BY 1432 HE HAD COMPLETED WHAT
00:20:47MANY CONSIDER TO BE HIS GREATEST WORK AN ALTARPIECE FOR
00:20:50THE CATHEDRAL OF SAINTBAVON IN GHENT WHICH HUBERT ALMOST
00:20:55CERTAINLY HELPED TO CREATE AS WITH THE EARLIER WORK OF
00:21:00THE LIMBOURG BROTHERS THE NEW SYSTEM OF PERSPECTIVE IS ABSENT
00:21:03AND YET THE GHENT ALTARPIECE ACHIEVES AN IMPRESSION OF THREE
00:21:08DIMENSIONS WITH ITS IMMACULATE DETAIL AND TONAL CONTRASTS
00:21:13BOTH IN THE INDIVIDUAL FIGURES AND THE LANDSCAPE TO CREATE
00:21:17AN EFFECT QUITE UNLIKE ANY CONTEMPORARY WORK IN ITALY
00:21:23AND ANOTHER INNOVATIVE ASPECT OF THE GHENT ALTARPIECE IS THE
00:21:27MATERIAL WHICH VAN EYCK CHOSE TO EXECUTE THE WORK
00:21:32FOR VAN EYCK WAS THE PIONEER IN THE USE OF A NEW KIND
00:21:35OF PAINTING OIL PAINTING gtgt WHAT VAN EYCK EXPLOITED
00:21:43OF COURSE WAS THE ABILITY OF OIL PAINT TO BE USED
00:21:47TRANSPARENTLY TRANSLUCENTLY AND OPAQUELY AND THIS GAVE
00:21:53VAN EYCK IN PARTICULAR THE ABILITY REALLY
00:21:57TO PAINT EVERYTHING HE COULD REPLICATE THE QUALITY
00:22:01OF METALS CERAMICS TEXTILES SKIN WITH A VORACITY THAT HAD
00:22:06NOT BEEN ACHIEVED BEFORE CERTAINLY IN CONTRAST
00:22:10TO TEMPERA A MUCH SLOWER AND IT WAS BONDED WITH EGG
00:22:14AND A MORE KIND OF RIGID TECHNIQUE
00:22:17OIL PAINTING COULD BE USED TRANSLUCENTLY
00:22:19FOR EXAMPLE THE ARNOLFINI MARRIAGE DEMONSTRATES
00:22:22OIL PAINTING THATS SUBLIME EVERY SURFACE EVERY TEXTURE
00:22:26IS REPLICATED WITH TRUTH gtgt SIGNIFICANTLY
00:22:31VAN EYCK WAS ALSO COMMISSIONED TO PRODUCE WORK WITHOUT ANY
00:22:34RELIGIOUS DIMENSION WHATSOEVER HE WAS A PORTRAITIST
00:22:38OF THE HIGHEST ORDER THE FIRST GREAT MASTER OF THE
00:22:42GENRE IN THE POSTMEDIEVAL ERA HIS 1434 PORTRAIT THE BETROTHAL
00:22:48OF THE ARNOLFINI NOW ON DISPLAY IN LONDONS NATIONAL
00:22:52GALLERY TRIUMPHANTLY ASSERTS VAN EYCKS ABILITIES
00:22:59gtgt THE ARNOLFINI WEDDING IS A DOUBLE PORTRAIT A PORTRAIT
00:23:03OF GIOVANNI ARNOLFINI AND HIS NEW BRIDE
00:23:09AND WHAT PERHAPS IT DEMONSTRATES IS A PAINTING BEING USED
00:23:13AS A DOCUMENT THE PAINTER WITNESSES A MARRIAGE
00:23:18THAT IS TAKING PLACE AND WHILST EVERYTHING IS PAINTED
00:23:23WITH ABSOLUTE KIND OF TRUTH THE FUR THE LIGHT AND THE
00:23:26ROOMWHAT IS BEING PORTRAYED OF COURSE IS SOMETHING
00:23:30VERY SACRAMENTAL AND EVERYTHING IN THE ROOM
00:23:33REINFORCES THE NOTION THAT THIS IS A VERY SPECIAL OCCASION
00:23:39THESE ARE SYMBOLS OF FIDELITY THE DOG AT THE FEET OF THE
00:23:44COUPLE THE SYMBOL OF THE SINGLE LIGHT THE CANDELABRA
00:23:48A SIGNIFICANT PAS DE DEUX THE SYMBOL OF SAINT MARGARET
00:23:53THE PATRON SAINT OF CHILDBIRTH ALL THESE PERHAPS KIND OF
00:23:56REINFORCE THE NOTION OF MARRIAGE
00:23:59BUT WHAT WE SEE IN THE CONVEX MIRROR THE BACK OF THE
00:24:03PAINTING IS VAN EYCK HIMSELF WITNESSING THIS
00:24:09AND ABOVE THIS IN A FLOURISH OF GOTHIC SCRIPT IS THE SIGN
00:24:13JAN VAN EYCK WAS HERE DEMONSTRATING THAT HES
00:24:17BOTH KIND OF A WITNESS AND A PAINTER TO THIS SCENE
00:24:21gtgt ALTHOUGH SECULAR THEMES WOULD BECOME INCREASINGLY
00:24:24IMPORTANT TO THE ARTISTS OF NORTHERN EUROPE WORK
00:24:28INSPIRED BY RELIGION CONTINUED TO BE WIDESPREAD AS CAN BE SEEN
00:24:33IN THE WORK OF THE OTHER GREAT FIGURE OF 15thCENTURY
00:24:36NETHERLANDS ART ROGIER van der WEYDEN
00:24:39A CONTEMPORARY OF VAN EYCK WHO BECAME THE OFFICIAL PAINTER
00:24:43TO THE CITY OF BRUGGE IN 1435 CHRISTIAN THEMES DOMINATED
00:24:50HIS LIFES WORK ESPECIALLY IMAGES OF THE VIRGIN MARY
00:24:53AND THE CRUCIFIXION DESCENT FROM THE CROSS
00:24:57IS TYPICAL AND SHOWS van der WEYDEN LIKE VAN EYCK
00:25:01USING GREAT DETAIL BUT ARRANGING THE FIGURES
00:25:04AROUND CHRIST IN CONFINED SPACE PRODUCING A STRONG
00:25:08SPIRITUAL IMPRESSION THOUGH IT IS KNOWN THAT
00:25:12van der WEYDEN PRODUCED A NUMBER OF SECULAR WORKS
00:25:15IN HIS LIFETIME INCLUDING NOWLOST EROTIC NUDES
00:25:19HIS RELIGIOUS MASTERPIECES HAVE SECURED HIM A PLACE
00:25:22IN EUROPEAN ART HISTORY FOR ALL THEIR GENIUS
00:25:2715thCENTURY NETHERLANDS ARTISTS LIKE VAN EYCK AND van der WEYDEN
00:25:33WERE STILL WORKING WITHIN AN OLD TRADITION
00:25:36BACK IN ITALY HOWEVER THE NEW THINKING WAS BEING
00:25:39APPLIED WITH GUSTO AND THE ITALIAN ART OF THE LATER
00:25:4315th CENTURY WAS A TIME OF ALMOST UNRIVALED INNOVATION
00:25:47AND EXPERIMENT LAYING THE GROUND FOR THE WONDERS
00:25:51OF THE CENTURY TO COME UNSURPRISINGLY ARTISTS FROM
00:25:56FLORENCE WERE HEAVILY INVOLVED IN THE NEW CULTURE OF EXPERIMENT
00:25:59AND DISCOVERY AND FOR THE FLORENTINE PAOLO UCCELLO
00:26:04A CRAFTSMAN OBSESSED WITH GEOMETRY THE NEW IDEAS
00:26:08OF MATHEMATICAL PERSPECTIVE WERE MASSIVELY SIGNIFICANT
00:26:13UCCELLOS ENTHUSIASM FOR THE NEW TECHNIQUE CAN BE SEEN THROUGHOUT
00:26:18HIS BESTKNOWN WORK THE BATTLE OF SAN ROMANO
00:26:23THREE PANELS DEPICTING A CONTEMPORARY FLORENTINE
00:26:26MILITARY TRIUMPH ONE OF WHICH IS NOW ON DISPLAY IN LONDONS
00:26:29NATIONAL GALLERY ELSEWHERE IN ITALY THE IDEAS
00:26:40THAT INFLUENCED UCCELLO WERE MANIFESTING THEMSELVES
00:26:44FROM PADUA CAME ANDREA MANTEGNA A TRUE GREAT OF 15thCENTURY
00:26:49ITALIAN ART IN HIS EARLY FRESCOES HIS USE
00:26:53OF PERSPECTIVE IS OBVIOUS BUT IT IS THE FORM OF THE HUMAN
00:26:57FIGURES THAT IS MOST STRIKING AS SOLID AS DONATELLOS
00:27:02SCULPTURES WHICH INFLUENCED HIM GREATLY THEIR SPATIAL
00:27:05DISTRIBUTION LENDS THE WHOLE SCENE AN AIR OF REALISM
00:27:08AND DRAMA MANTEGNAS MASTERY OF WHAT MIGHT
00:27:12BE TERMED AN ARCHITECTURAL APPROACH TO SPACE CAN ALSO BE
00:27:16SEEN IN HIS ALTARPIECE MADONNA ENTHRONED WHERE
00:27:21HE USES THE FRAMED COLUMNS AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE
00:27:24SPATIAL DEFINITION OF THE PANELS WHOSE FORCE IS AMPLIFIED
00:27:27BY THE ARTISTS USE OF NATURAL LIGHT TO ILLUMINATE THE
00:27:31ALTARPIECE BY MEANS OF A WINDOW SPECIALLY CUT IN THE CHOIR WALL
00:27:38THE IMPORTANCE OF SPACE AND LIGHT IN PAINTING WAS ALSO
00:27:42RECOGNIZED BY ANOTHER ITALIAN PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA WHO
00:27:48IN TRUE RENAISSANCE STYLE WROTE BOOKS ON THE GEOMETRY
00:27:52AND PERSPECTIVE THAT INTERESTED HIM SO MUCH
00:27:55LIKE MANTEGNA HIS GREATEST WORKS WERE FRESCOES CREATED
00:27:58FOR THE CHURCH OF SAN FRANCESCO IN AREZZO
00:28:04IF WE TAKE THE FRESCO FROM THIS SERIES THAT DEPICTS THE
00:28:07LEGENDARY DREAM OF THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINEHIS VISION
00:28:11OF THE CROSS WHICH LED TO HIS CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY
00:28:14WE SEE THAT NOT ONLY HAS PIERO INCORPORATED THE THEORIES
00:28:18OF PERSPECTIVE BUT HAS DRAMATICALLY MADE USE OF LIGHT
00:28:22TO CREATE THE ILLUSION OF DEPTH THE SENSE OF DISTANCE BETWEEN
00:28:27THE PIKECARRYING SOLDIER AND THE OPENING TO THE TENT BATHED
00:28:31AS IT IS IN LIGHT IS STRIKING AND PIEROS INNOVATIONS MADE
00:28:36POSSIBLE THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGHT SCENES IN PAINTING
00:28:41FOR ALL THE ARTISTIC DEVELOPMENTS GOING ON ACROSS
00:28:43ITALY AS THE 15th CENTURY NEARED ITS END FLORENCE REMAINED THE
00:28:47CENTER OF ARTISTIC EXCELLENCE AND IT WAS FLORENCE THAT
00:28:52PRODUCED THE LAST GREAT ITALIAN PAINTER OF THE 15th CENTURY
00:28:56SANDRO BOTTICELLI IN MANY WAYS THE ACHIEVEMENTS
00:29:01OF BOTTICELLI ARE MORE SUBTLE THAN OTHER MASTERS OF THE
00:29:04CENTURY ALTHOUGH IN ONE OF HIS EARLIER WORKS WE CAN IDENTIFY
00:29:08A SIGNIFICANT TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT THE ILLUSION
00:29:11OF A CENTRAL PYRAMID AS THE DEFINING FOCUS OF THE PAINTING
00:29:16A TECHNIQUE WHICH WOULD BE WIDELY ADAPTED BY THE
00:29:19GENERATIONS THAT FOLLOWED HIM WHEN WE CONSIDER WHAT IS
00:29:22UNDOUBTEDLY BOTTICELLIS BESTKNOWN WORK
00:29:25THE BIRTH OF VENUS IN THE UFFIZI GALLERY IN HIS
00:29:28HOME CITY IT ALMOST SEEMS AS IF THE INNOVATIONS OF THE CENTURY
00:29:33CONCERNED WITH PERSPECTIVE PROPORTION AND ANATOMY
00:29:36HAVE PASSED HIM BY HOWEVER HIS AIMS WITH
00:29:40THE BIRTH OF VENUS WERE MORE CONCERNED WITH ART THAN SCIENCE
00:29:44AND THE ENDURING POPULARITY OF THIS WORK IS TESTIMONY
00:29:47TO HIS ACHIEVEMENT IT IS SIGNIFICANT THAT
00:29:57BOTTICELLIS EARLY MENTOR WAS THE SCULPTOR AND PAINTER
00:30:00ANDREA del VERROCCHIO WHOSE MAGNIFICENT STATUE OF THE
00:30:04FLORENTINE GENERAL CORLEONE CAN STILL BE SEEN IN VENICE TODAY
00:30:10COMPLETED IN 1479 THIS MAGNIFICENT CREATION SHOWS OFF
00:30:15ALL THE ANATOMICAL CORRECTNESS AND SOLIDITY OF FORM SO BELOVED
00:30:20OF THE ITALIAN ARTISTS OF THE 15th CENTURY
00:30:25BUT VERROCCHIOS SIGNIFICANCE RESTS NOT ONLY WITH HIS OWN WORK
00:30:29BUT WITH THAT OF ONE OF HIS PUPILS WHO HAD ALREADY BEEN
00:30:33WITH HIM FOR SEVERAL YEARS WHEN THIS STATUE WAS CREATED
00:30:37HIS NAME WAS LEONARDO da VINCI AND HE WAS TO BECOME
00:30:42ONE OF THE GREATEST FIGURES IN HUMAN HISTORY AND A KEY
00:30:46FIGURE OF THE HIGH RENAISSANCE WHICH WILL BE THE SUBJECT
00:30:50OF THE NEXT PROGRAM
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1.  The History of Western Art: Volume 1: Light in the Darkness This program presents Gothic Art and western art, artists, and painters of the Late Medieval Period to the Renaissance, including Giotto, Van Eyck, Brunoleschi, Massachio, Donatello, Rogier van der Weyden, and Botticelli.
2.  The History of Western Art: Volume 2: A New Dawn This program presents Western Art, artists, painters, the Renaissance, the Golden Age and the Reformation of Medieval Florence, and it includes the art and artists Michelangelo, Raphael, Da Vinci, Holbein, Durer, Titian, Ambassadors, Mona Lisa, The Last Judgment, The Last Supper, David, and the Sistine Chapel.
3.  The History of Western Art: Volume 3: The Age of Splendor This program presents Western Art, artists, painters, Baroque, Baroque painting and sculpture, and the Dutch masters and others, including Vermeer, Rembrandt, Rubens, Caravaggio and Bernini, as well as the art masterpieces Las Meninas, Marriage a la Mode, The Conversion of St Paul, and The Lion Hunt.
4.  The History of Western Art: Volume 4: Reason and Enlightenment This program presents Western Art, artists, painters, The Age of Rococo, and the artists Hogarth, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Chardin, Jean-Antoine Watteau, Copely, François Boucher, David, and the masterpieces The Blue Boy, The Rakes Progress, and Saying Grace.
5.  The History of Western Art: Volume 5: Passion and Revolution This program presents Western Art, artists, painters, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Romantic Period, Romantic Art, and landscape painters, including Constable, Turner, Goya, Jacques Louis David, Marat, Eugène Delacroix, Caspar David Friedrich, and the masterpieces, The Third of May, The Hay Wain and Rain, Steam and Speed.
6.  The History of Western Art: Volume 6: A New Vision This program presents artists, painters, Paris as the Europe's center for art, Impressionism, Post Impressionism, and the artists Cezanne, Seurat, Degas, Renoir, Gauguin, Manet, Monet, Van Gogh, and the masterpieces Dance at the Moulin de la Galette, La Mont St. Victoire, and The Bathers.
APA StyleThe History of Western Art. (2000). © 2000 Cromwell. Retrieved 04:05, May 24, 2019, from http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA.
Harvard StyleThe History of Western Art. {Internet}. 2000. © 2000 Cromwell. Available from: http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA {24 May 2019}.
MLA Style'The History of Western Art.' 2000. © 2000 Cromwell. May 24, 2019 04:05 http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA.
MHRA Style'The History of Western Art,' © 2000 Cromwell, 2000, http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA (accessed May 24, 2019).
Chicago Style'The History of Western Art', © 2000 Cromwell, http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA. May 24, 2019
CBE/CSE StyleThe History of Western Art . © 2000 Cromwell; 2000 {cited 2019 May 24} Available from: http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA.
Bluebook StyleThe History of Western Art, http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA (last visited May 24, 2019).
AMA StyleThe History of Western Art. © 2000 Cromwell. 2000. Available at: http://videos.ambrosevideo.com/?HWA. Accessed May 24, 2019.
Rendering ID 86295
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Title HWA/The History of Western Art/39
Program HWA-001/5534